The Lazurus Effect

I was recently asked by a reader of Aging with HIV: A Gay Man’s Guide to comment on the term the Lazarus Syndrome. This man, a gay man living with HIV in middle age himself, wondered why I don’t refer to the term in my book and why it seems to be out of favor in the field. I thought it was a very interesting question, and I thought I would share my response with you.

You raise a very interesting point. I, too, remember when the term, “Lazarus syndrome” was used by researchers, clinicians, people living with HIV, and the media. With the introduction of protease inhibitors some people with HIV found a new lease on life. (I say, “some” because I knew many people for whom these early advances were not helpful. There continued, and continue, to be deaths to AIDS and many experienced debilitating illnesses and side effects even with the advent of HAART.) But, people were surviving, and for many this felt, as you put it, “miraculous.”

I think the term, Lazarus syndrome, emerged to describe the experience of people who, spared from imminent death, had to concern themselves with the challenges of living with HIV. In retrospect, I see how using that term helped people put a name to the feeling that they had lived longer than expected, and, having identified themselves as survivors, could then set out to “live” with HIV.

I am not sure, however, what the “syndrome” was that the term was meant to describe. Doctors use the term “syndrome” to identify a collection of symptoms that occur together. I don’t believe a syndrome was ever identified in people living with HIV who had survived longer than expected. Perhaps, that is why the term has fallen out of favor.  I have also read the term Lazurus Effect, which seems to me more accurate.

Instead of one “syndrome” we see several dynamics impacting people living with HIV. Concerns related to managing chronic illness, stigma, depression, financial concerns, survivor guilt, etc. have all been studied, but, as far as I know, there is not one clinical picture of people living with HIV.

And, now, a whole new set of issues are arising as people are facing the unanticipated challenges of aging with HIV – which is why I wrote the book.

So, my long winded response to your question is, yes, the Lazarus effect, is still a concern. However, in my opinion, the longer people survive with HIV and the virus evolves into a chronic illness, the term will only describe a part of an increasing complex picture of what it means to live with HIV.

Do you think the “Lazarus Effect” accurately describes the experience of living with HIV today?


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